It is a kind of reciprocity of action that can only arise and occur amongst individual men:. As we saw, for Ortega, the interpretation of human actions raises difficulties for standard empiricist accounts of explanation of the human and social world.
Biography 1. I see them as alien and something as opposed to me…. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
Currently, history can be our approach to knowledge of the individual and of humanity, and through history we acquire the wealth and wisdom of past cultures. This is the attitude that we may call the natural, normal and everyday attitude in which we live; and, because of it, because of living with others in a presumed world—hence our world—our living is co-living, living together.
He studied closely with both Cohen and Paul Natorp, and the former served as Ortega's primary mentor. In the early 1930s Ortega formulated, in a systematic fashion, his general philosophical standpoint—positing human life as the ultimate reality—which contains philosophy within history.
Man and Crisis[En Torno a Galileo 1933 ] , trans. An attempt to distinguish philosophy from the assumptions and assertions—whether idealistic or positivistic—of speculative metaphysics characterized his general philosophical position. For example, the bow is an invention created both to hunt and to play music.
The following year, Ortega transferred to the Central University of Madrid from which he received his licenciatura in philosophy and letters in June 1902, and his doctorate in December 1904.
Only death, by preventing any new change, changes man into the definitive and immutable himself…from the moment we begin to be, death may intervene into the very substance of our life, collaborate in it, compress it and densify it, may make it urgency imminence and the need of doing our best at every instant. Often mentioned, as is Miguel de Unamuno , with the existentialists, Ortega expounded a philosophy that has been called "ratiovitalism" or "vital reason," in which he sought to do justice to both the intellectual and passional dimensions of man as manifestations of the fundamental reality, "human life.
His response to Husserl's Formal and Transcendental Logic 1929  points to his criticism of this tendency in phenomenology. The Generation of 1927 originated as a term to characterize a certain similarity of poets and writers in 1920s Spain.
From the beginning, then, I find myself in a human world or society. The later position, which can hardly be interpreted from a purely phenomenological point of view, seems more in harmony with his final philosophy.
In the course of his career as philosopher, social theorist, essayist, cultural and aesthetic critic, educator, politician and editor of the influential journal, Revista de Occidente , he has written on a broad range of themes and issues.
The "instrument" by which one can capture radical reality is the vital reason that, in the last analysis, is identical with life itself.
The citation is from vol. The particular importance Ortega ascribed to history, and his contention that the mind's character had been radically misinterpreted by empiricist philosophers, reflected the presupposition underlying his portrayal of the individual as an autonomous historical agent.
He died in Madrid on October 18.